Effective and proper site design is critically important for all existing and new facilities on Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB). Site design incorporates strategies for safety, security, efficiency, resiliency, well-being, and connectivity. These focus areas promote a more cohesive base appearance and contribute to consistency and unity throughout the site design, thus establishing a connected, resilient installation.
This section presents important site design principles, strategies, and elements to be considered when planning, designing, and implementing new facilities.
The site design and development guidance provided in this section is intended to complement current design standards outlined in Unified Facility Criteria (UFC) issued by U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Where applicable, it is intended to fill gaps not addressed either in the UFC or the updated Tyndall AFB Installation Facilities Standards (IFS). In that regard, this document mainly applies to proposed sites and their facilities. The prototypical site design concepts shown in this section are intended for use as references for functional and aesthetic consideration.
Coordination of design and construction with Tyndall AFB staff, agencies, service providers and third-party contractors is critical to the successful implementation of planned improvements. All work is required to be warrantied regarding location and installation of materials in a manner consistent with the intent of the Landscape Master Plan and IFS, and to not create a conflict for installation of adjacent improvements by others. All potential conflicts will be identified by designers/contractors in respective sections of the Compliance Checklist and reviewed by Tyndall AFB Staff.
C01.2 Design Objectives
Tyndall AFB was established and constructed in the early 1940s as an airfield. Over the decades, new facilities were added to the installation’s property. As missions evolved throughout the years, buildings, streets, entrances, and supporting facilities have been demolished, constructed, and renovated. Given the growth that has occurred across Tyndall AFB over the past 80 years, the installation’s appearance has an inconsistent overall appearance, building placement, orientation, access, parking, and pedestrian mobility.
During Hurricane Michael in October 2018, the base’s support, Flightline, and housing areas incurred substantial damage. Although this storm caused major disruption to the base mission and operations, it has provided significant opportunity for transformation. As Tyndall AFB rebuilds into the Installation of the Future, the goal is to create a more resilient and efficient base that is better equipped to respond to future missions as well as to future environmental hazards.
Expanding on the current UFC and IFS guidance, this site design section provides additional guidance related to buildings, their siting, and supporting facilities and how these elements connect to one another. This guidance underscores the base’s vision of creating a more efficient, compact, and safe installation through a planned system of interconnected, adjacent sites, rather than a more traditional approach to constructing independent facilities.
C01.3 Design Approach
The three layers of integrating security with the design of the natural environment at Tyndall AFB is the application of antiterrorism (AT) requirements, inclusion of security-specific components, and use of CPTED principles in siting and layout. This section details how each should be incorporated to create successful and secure spaces.
The DoD outlines its standards for technical criteria (UFC) and specifications (Unified Facilities Guide Specifications, or UFGS) pertaining to planning, design, construction, and operation and maintenance of Real Property facilities. The program is administered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) to provide the current standards of development for ongoing and future projects. The UFC and UFGS are available at the WBDG website (www.wbdg.org). The DoD uses WBDG not only distribute up-to-date guidance, but also to inform the planning, programming, and design of built projects.
AT requirements are a key component of DoD installations, and a special consideration for design. As described in UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings (2018), the requirements establish the minimum standards for incorporating AT mitigating measures that are not associated with an identified threat or level of protection. Compliance with the UFC reduces collateral damage and the scope and severity of mass casualties in the event of a terrorist. The process for incorporating AT components into planning and design projects is illustrated on Exhibit C01-1.
Force protection, a related component of AT, describes the measures needed to protect a property or facility from an attack using force. Design elements that can contribute to force protection are guided by multiple UFC in Section 4-022.
The landscape at building foundations must be low in height
Enhance the aesthetic of the building
Assist with positive stormwater drainage
Plant material must be selected from the Tyndall AFB Master Plant List
The landscape at building entrances must be clean and simple
Highly trafficked buildings must have pedestrian amenities
Entrances must be well lit at night for safety and the lighting must act as a beacon to the front door
Bollards can be used for AT purposes as well as light elements
Viewsheds and Corridors
Eliminate any opportunity objects to be concealed in the AT zone around buildings
Groundcovers should be no taller than 6 inches
Single-stem deciduous trees installed with a minimum 3-inch caliper must be limbed up to the top two-thirds of the specimen, as shown on Exhibit C01-2
At maturity, the landscape of the AT zone should create an open viewshed of 6 inches to approximately 7 feet
Landscape along circulation routes create view corridors through uniform application of overstory and understory materials that provide uninterrupted lines of sight
View corridors from building entrances to circulation routes preserved
The installation’s security, comprising both physical and digital components, is of the utmost importance at Tyndall AFB. Therefore, integrating security components must be included in all planning and design phases of work, and guided by the resources listed below.
The natural landscape and site furnishings are designed and used to perform security functions as necessary and provide cohesion to the base’s security system in its entirety.
Because security will never be the only requirement associated with a project, it is imperative for security considerations to be coordinated with all the requirements from the time planning begins throughout all phases of design. Surveillance, access control, and emergency assistance components are planned within the landscape.
Unobstructed Space. Provide clear lines of sight and prevent visual impairment to physical threats. Unobstructed space is referred to as setback, standoff distance, and clear zone.
Lighting. Provide visibility to its surroundings.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV). Provide visibility and record everything in the camera’s viewshed.
Manned Stations. Provide a space with reasonable comfort from the elements for personnel who are present for periods of time. These stations require high levels of visibility and can include outpost shacks, shade structures, and other components.
Vehicle Barriers. Control access and circulation of vehicles and include bollards, immoveable objects, gate arms, and other preventative items.
Fencing. Control access and circulation of pedestrians and vehicles.
Obstructed space. Control visual access and deter pedestrian and vehicular access. Within the natural environment this can include heavily wooded landscape, boulders, waterways, and rock formations.
Controlled Elevation Change. Changes in elevation are meant to control visual and vehicular access and provide an extra layer of security without sacrificing visual design aesthetics. These can include trenches and waterways. Although landscaped berms are applicable in some cases, they are not recommended for Tyndall AFB due to the base’s stormwater drainage patterns.
Blue Light Phones. Blue light phones with emergency buttons may be used when a person is in need of medical assistance or in the event of a crime. They can be placed around the installation as an additional safety measure.
Landscape Design as Threat Deterrents
Well-executed design of the natural environment has proven to be an effective means of threat deterrent when applied using the principles listed below, an approach that has been successfully in use for decades. The pillars of CPTED facilitate the integration of AT requirements and security components into effective site layouts and landscape designs. When planned successfully, it both motivates positive behavior and discourages negative behavior. This strategy is appropriate for inhabited areas as a complement to AT and other security requirements.
To be most effective, the CPTED strategy must be implemented as early as possible in the planning stage. To do so, security personnel must be engaged in planning activities that involve siting, signage, lighting, and circulation. These discussions should identify the following:
Who the legitimate users, visitors, and vendors of a space are, what their purpose is, where they should and should not be going, and when they should be there
What risks are presented from surrounding areas
An effective, multifunctional planning and design strategy relies on the coordination of the site layout and the security features. Like with all multifunctional components, successful implementation can result in streamlined, cost-efficient site operations.
Natural Surveillance "See and be seen" is the overall goal when it comes to CPTED and natural surveillance. Landscape and lighting are key to effective natural surveillance by providing uninterrupted sight lines at all times. This is best achieved when viewsheds are considered from circulation corridors, exterior destination points such as plazas and parking areas, and building entrances and windows.
Natural Access Control The goal of natural access control is to direct the flow of people while decreasing the opportunity for criminal threat. This can be accomplished with coordinated site and building layouts, proposed circulation patterns, and effective wayfinding and screening components that guide users with visual cues. These components can include signage, designated treatments of landscape and pavement materials, fences, and other barriers. These components should be overlaid with the site layout and security features and operations to create short travel distances between destinations and predictable circulation routes for users, visitors, and vendors.
Territorial Reinforcement Clear delineation of space creates a sense or ownership or territorial reinforcement of each area. Public areas are clearly distinguished from private ones using landscape, site furnishings and pavement materials. Potential trespassers perceive this control and are thereby discouraged.
Maintenance The "Broken Window Theory" suggests that one "broken window" or nuisance, if allowed to exist, will lead to others and ultimately to the decline of an entire installation. Neglected and poorly maintained properties can inadvertently encourage opportunity for criminal threat as they are perceived to be unsupervised.
The criteria in this section relate to specific design requirements, including IFS requirements, and guidelines for designer/contractors to follow and Tyndall AFB personnel to review. Additional criteria are provided in the other sections of this Landscape Master Plan and are not repeated in this section; however, the requirements for site design must be coordinated with other site elements. The sections that follow serve as worksheets, with supporting guidance and illustrations, for designers/contractors to use among their teams and in coordination with Tyndall AFB. These worksheets should be used to complete the Compliance Checklist submittal for each project. Each requirement includes a selection of check boxes to indicate the applicability of that requirement to a specific context, and to demonstrate compliance with the requirements.
Yes No NA
The designer/contractor either selects “Yes” if compliance has been met, “No” if it has not, or “N/A” if the requirement is not applicable to the project.
Yes No NA The site design and layout of the facility must comply with the following criteria:
SDC 1. Locate service areas and utility infrastructure to the side or rear of building, relative to streets and the primary building entrance.
SDC 2. For sites along a shared-use path, orient the building so the primary façade addresses the path and secondary façade faces the most primary street.
SDC 3. For sites not along a shared-use path, orient the building so the primary façade addresses the most primary street and secondary façade faces a parking area to rear of site.
SDC 4. Provide building entrances with access to both street side and parking side of structure.
SDC 5. Provide site sidewalks and shared-use paths that connect to surrounding pedestrian/bike systems.
SDC 6. Configure parking so areas are navigable by local emergency response apparatus. Ensure fire department access complies with UFC 3-600-01/NFPA.
SDC 7. Design landscaping, fencing, bollard placement, and similar obstructions so they are located a minimum of 24-inches from the vertical centerline of fire hydrants and not directly in front of any outlet (UFC 3-600-01).
The AT and force protection measures suggested in Exhibit C01-6 illustrate how these may be integrated within the overall site design. Force protection measures must follow all required regulations in the planning and design relative to the unique requirements of each site and facility. Additionally, AT applications must adhere to the following criteria:
Yes No NA
SDC 8. Implement force protection at entrances, such as boulders or bollards.
SDC 9. Maintain open view sheds to and from building entrances.
SDC 10. Use force protection measures such as berms, walls, or fencing, as required, between buildings and areas used by vehicles.
SDC 11. Use trees to further shield protected assets within buildings.
The site design relating to the building perimeter, shown on Exhibit C01-7, must comply with the following criteria:
Yes No NA
SDC 12. Locate service areas and utility infrastructure to the side or rear of building, relative to streets and the primary building entrance.
SDC 13. Orient service areas and loading bays to side or rear areas. Avoid orientation to primary streets, parking areas, and building entrances
SDC 14. Avoid obstructing fire hydrants, fire department inlet connections, or fire protection system control valves in a manner that would prevent such equipment or fire hydrants from being immediately visible and accessible (NFPA 1).
The Entry Control Facility (ECF) typically begins at the installation perimeter. The design and layout of the facility must adhere to the following criteria:
Yes No NA
SDC 18. Provide entry walls and vertical sculptural elements on each side of the entrance.
SDC 19. Provide tree planting at the Tyndall Gate in the Flightline District in accordance with the landscape requirements for the Flightline District.
SDC 20. Arrange trees and ground-level plantings as indicated in graphic. Ground-level species should remain low to allow eye-level visibility within the ECF areas. Place accent or flowering trees at highly visible areas.
SDC 21. Provide turf only in the Maintained Zone at the back of the curb for increased visibility in the ECF areas.
SDC 22. Reconfigure existing landscape elements in the ECF areas to accommodate new gate and intersection alignments.
SDC 23. Select plant materials from the Manicured Zone Plant List. Refer to the Flightline Plant List for specific plant requirements in the Flightline District.
SDC 24. Use low maintenance landscape treatment to include xeriscape practices that feature plant species which require low to moderate water consumption.
SDC 25. Integrate traditional and/or natured-based stormwater management solutions into the overall facility layout and planting design.
SDC 26. Refer to the IFS Design Intent: Architecture Image & Character appendix for design guidelines for any architectural elements.
SDC 27. Install a manicured central lawn to provide space for various activities. Design the lawn to be resilient under heavy public use.
SDC 28. Install non-turf landscaped areas around the perimeter of the Community Common. Include a mix of evergreen ground cover, evergreen shrubs, flowering shrubs, and perennials.
SDC 29. Provide canopy trees along both sides of the walking path for a minimum of 60% of shade for along the entire length.
SDC 30. Maintain a clear line-of-sight line from building entrances to the Community Common. Trees should be spaced at maximum 40 feet on center.
SDC 31. Facilitate maintenance and pedestrian movement by preserving access from the buildings to open space.
SDC 32. Install a minimum 10-foot-wide pedestrian walking path around the Community Common. Use concrete pavers or stamped concrete. See Section C05, Sidewalks, Pathways and Trails, for allowed types of enhanced pavements.
SDC 33. Include four benches at each building entrance near the edge of pavement and away from direct flow of pedestrian movement.
SDC 34. Locate and position outdoor seating and pedestrian areas in spaces shaded by buildings, tree canopies, or shade structures. Introduce shade structures to provide shelter space when needed.
SDC 35. Confirm individual program requirements and the need for items such as electric outlets needed for power during events.
Proposed Coastal Zone Marine Facilities All design and construction activities related to the planning, design, and construction of marine-related features and shoreline protection must be conducted in collaboration with the 325 CES Environmental Element within the guidelines of the Tyndall AFB INRMP. Project teams must assess and develop opportunities for integrating Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) in all shoreline protection designs. Examples of NNBF include beaches and dunes; vegetated environments such as maritime forests, salt marshes, freshwater wetlands, fluvial flood plains, and seagrass beds; coral and oyster reefs; and barrier islands, among others. These features may occur naturally in landscapes or be engineered, constructed, and/or restored to mimic natural conditions. For more information see USACE’s Engineering With Nature website: https://ewn.el.erdc.dren.mil/nnbf.html.
C01.6.4.1 Piers, Docks, Bulkheads, & Other Marine-related Facilities (Shoreline/Off-Shore)
Facilities implemented along the shoreline or in waterways provide access to Tyndall AFB’s unique and beautiful marine environment. These facilities must be designed and implemented with extreme care to protect and enhance this fragile waterfront ecosystem for generations.
Piers, floating docks and other marine-related facilities, at a minimum, must adhere to the following criteria:
Yes No NA
SDC 38. Coordinate with 325 CES Environmental Element and the Tyndall AFB INRMP to align with coastal restoration and resilience plan objectives and to identify the site-wide ecological context and potential vulnerabilities.
SDC 39. Follow all applicable local, state, and federal codes for planning, design, and construction activities, including but not limited to, demolition, dredging, and new construction.
SDC 40. Protect adjacent shorelines, waterways, wetlands, and other environments during construction.
SDC 41. Protect all existing facilities during construction and prohibit debris from migrating outside construction zone.
SDC 42. Use environmentally safe materials suitable for a marine environment that are durable and resistant to saltwater, fire, flooding, heat, cold, wind, ultraviolet (UV) sunlight, and fuels/oil.
SDC 43. Use deck surfaces consisting of concrete or composite (wood-plastic) material and that resist sunlight (UV), wetting/drying, freezing/thawing, and fuels/oils. Use a textured surface that is skid resistant and resists abrasion, denting from dropped objects, and cracking.
SDC 44. Develop, where appropriate, landscape-scale nature-based features for increased storm-related resiliency, diversity of habitat, and ecological benefits
SDC 45. Consider environmental loads from wind, tidal and river flows, waves, floating debris, and floods and surges, among other naturally occurring conditions and events.